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ߣ ԴϢ

߼ƣУѧ̷ѧʿ2007¹ѧ˹ʿ̷ооԱ2005---2006̨嶫ѧѧԺʽ20072007νڶ⾭óѧѧԺĿǰΪ廪ѧѧԺʿоԱ

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Ҫĵһ£ɱеʦɯʿ[1]

һ±绤֮·ΪʲôԽԽխ

гIJ̷ҵķ٣Ժ°ҲڱУǾ÷չĵɥıֹһ㿴ٶȼӿ죬Ҫ³´лҲȻӿ졣Ϊеһ̶ȴӶڽìвòijɱҲϣɱĸDzɱġҴӳԶҲֻһij̬Ϊִιҵġ걾У°ͬǶȿĴ˷˵ʲôؼԴͷ˵̬ȣǷιιķˮ롣ΪˮҪɲ֣һҵ±绤ڴ͹ԳҪ塣
һΪʲôҪ̷ΪǡȨϵĴ¡Ϊ˴ǶԹ̷ȨԼһΪʲôҪϷΪǡСܷΪ˾ذ참㣬Ҫͨʵһֿü塣һΪʲôҪ±绤Ϊֻ±绤У̷Ϸֵʵʾܹ֡û˱绤ʦİСı˸ԶԿǿĹһʵ巨ϵȨdzϵȨҪشӡֽϵȨɡʵеȨڷ֪ʶͷɼܵרҵҪʹñ˱Ѱ绤ʦİͺñȵһͷ۸ðԼԵҩҲԽϸѵĴ󲡻ص֢ÿ˶ȥҽԺҽΡһҽƼרҵԣһΪǶԼ彡ӡ±绤ʦڱȨϵúҪͬˡԵǿµIJħԵǿĹ߻ءҽҽѧ֪ʶͼܰ˿绤ʦķ֪ʶͼܰ޶ȵرĺϷȨ桪ɺشƲϣһҶԴ±绤̬ȱҵķɹͬԼͬΪ֮ڶԴɺȨ̬ȡĴʦ°ӵġ˹ŵΪʷΰʦΪһΪﷸ绤ʮأԶʮΰġ˺Ͷߵػ񡱶ƣΪǧʦĿģ[2]
йвͬᵽ°γյǣ±绤ʦԽԽ١ԱΪ°ƽѾ½1ݱʦЭͳƣ2000걱ʦ5495ˣȫ°4300˾°19902.64½20000.78ܰϷж±绤һЩӲԹ涨Ժʱ̯ɸʦһЩָ绤İӡܶʦԴЩӸûʲôԣֻװװ߹ݲ¡ϺĴȫһЩСΪءʦȦڣԽdzɹʦԽDzԸ°ӣǰһЩ±绤ʦҲʼת򣬽תƵ̴߰ϡݲȫͳƣΪֹȫ70%ϵ°ûʦ롣֮ԽԽʦ±绤Ϊη;Ѿҵ֪ҲӹԵ״
ΪʲôKornsteinڡKILL ALL THE LAWYERSɯʿƷеʦǶάʱթʦ[3]ڽйûԸ±绤е˵ǷҲζһ֡Ҫɱʦİʾףֻǣһ龳ijɱɱɱôʦΪʲô߲òԾڴ˵أɱʲôأ

ʵԭ

ҿʵ˵״ijԭȣ̴֤ȯеһЩҵȣй±绤λԽϵͣΣй˾ʹλе±绤ʦ˷ӵĿռС󣬵Ҫģйʦ°Ҫеܴķա
˵͵λ֮ôʦ±绤ڵķɼֵУ¹ظɵ°ԶԶҪЩ°ӸΪҪҲʦ𾴣ԸΪ˸ıꡣ룬У˫ؼǷdzҪԭ򡣶йķʵУһֵ߼ǣƺֻΪǮĹ˾ֵȥǮһЩֵȥǮҵʦһŸߵ׷͵λôϸ۲죬йתǶ֮ϵһֿͬʱкܶεԭ򡣱һЩܻ³İѾһν°;þֶͨα֡ˡ˿Խھò뷨ɷ³һҪôҪصĸˣǵġҪһҪǮûж١ĵײ㣬ǿһԩǴѵijƱʦһЩƫĽܷйµʵԳɷ֡һЩʦ򲻵ѣȻ׶αȥͼٴ򽻵һСǮأ
ȻЩȥش±绤·ΪʲôԽԽխƺһЩСʦǵˡʵϣйкܶǻѪʦΪһλĿǡһЩĴʦһǸϣڷͥʩչԼIJŻȥΪȡشȨ档ϧ֪˾ʵʹ뷨мĵijɷֱѹüޣ̷ƶĬȨرƽȡ˾вСִֵ˾걻ŲۣһЩΪֽϵƶȣӹԵǣ취ְ참˵ˮҵԴȻԻشڵµ˾ʵУҿ»൱һγʱռ˾Ա˾ʶ״ʹʦڷͥϽ±绤ʱָƽȵضԿָٻûȼءƫеؾвСʵϣܶ绤ʦڷͥϸһ֣ڼٺͷмΪһϰڷͥϿٵʦѵʦĻĵʦΨΨŵŵľ̬˷ЦᡣټϡΪ˱绤ġߡίͼίίضһЩĽͶԣһССı绤ʦڷͥϷӶĿռأνǹսƸһֹԵĿаˡ
Щ֮⣬ʦһЩȽ鷳Ͳ˴ԭǾ±绤ͷգҪɫɫġٵﷸ򽻵ż˵ľ϶Ҫи־;ľ޴ѹȡ֤öϰСɽľڲϣҹսΪﷸ绤Ҳѵģܶ౻˼Ǻ޲ðѱ绤ʦûԵĶﷸһˡغ˾ҲʦĺᣬһȺΪ˵ġֶε֮һ̷306ġα֤97̷䲼һʦѽˡʦִҵΪעij𻪽Ϊ306ѾΪ취ضԸʵʦġɱﵡʦԴһȻͷ۲ѣʦΣ30˴ξͷϳ̷306Žȫ鰸ȫձע˵Ǵһľʦ᳡֮⣬ܶʦԵĽǶȶԴϸµķΪ֤˸ı֤ԲӦóеΣҵʦƶȣҹ̷306ijֽһӾ˿ر˫ϵλϵʧ⣬Ʊְҵ[4]ѧһҲΪһ溬жʦӡ˾ʵУڿر˫ĶԿλҲԱ߷׷ߣʦһЩ΢ΥְҵµΪܱ档ɴ˿Կ롢λԼӦķգʹйֽ׶ε±绤֮·ֻԽԽխ
ǣЩԭγɵأ֮Щ֪ԭı󣬻ЩεشʹЩԭγɣյй±绤˵״أҽ˾ĸɹͬ塢ڵķʶͷѧĸԴ˽з

еӰ˾ĸ

˾ĸڽѾΪлһšѧһĸ棨˾ھܶʦ⣬ƪֻܾеһ㣬ͥʽĸ绤ʦĹϵۡΪ˾ĸһͷϷµġơĸϣУԿء硢ģʽȡ졢ˮҵģʽ绤ʦΪ硱һλõķˣڸĸܵԸ
ȣعȥƿ˾ĺ֮һڴγдڷߺǣͷ˵λãڡĽɫ绤һ͵λԹԼֱ΢ѧȴĴҪѹų˾ߵУν쾯һ廯ʵϣһڼͳ֮¡ʹùصĵλƺһͼ˾ΪͬŵȴҪۿšŪʹթġϹһԾΪ̨ϵǣ˾ĸȡͷΧôܲǵ񾯲ջû취ҲˣѵʰССʦ޸ĺġϷ˱绤ʦIJȨЩֻǡֽ֮ԹڽйеԺλãԹԱڽ참еʵȨõȵͥϣ绤ʦڽ밸֮ټѺͷաijЩԭȹȥĵƺͽ׶еı绤ʦȻųơȨʿʵҪνȺ塱ֻһЩĵ֪ʶʵȨǿ˶١
ΣڷͥΪƽƽĶԿߣйı绤ʦ˵ڿ»һ롣йļ˾ϵеĵλвͬһҵԡһ뷨ԺƽijЩڷԺļĴͳǰ˹ʱڣά˹ܼ쳤ʱǰļȨһʱֿȡ[5] йǰļģʽǿĹһŶڷԺ˾ļලְܡһ˾мලȨġٷҳҲijЩϻһЩԡ䷨ɹߡ̬ʱһ־Ӹµʹָڸпνߡ[6]⣬ָƽȣָԻĶԿҿ͸Ҫ˵˰ɡҾĻͳԣӺʱйĹٷԼڱ㲻ϰڽƽȵĵλ֮ϡڴͳйٷ۵һӹɵĺϷԡ˽˴˵ʿܱȲϹĹٻøȨͬʱ˽Ӧ÷ԹٷΪĹԼ档ԺܶΪɫƽҪǵλƽȣλƽȡƽȡ˴ǹ棬˴Ǹ棬ܹƽ𣿡[7]֮жԿƣںڿĹ۵Ծ൱Ӱ[8]
󣬷й˾ĸб˽ϸߵ˾ҪΧƷչġȻԽǵķٱҪڵ񡱣ǡڷɡЩ̵ļӿ֪ʶIJиŬεҲʼ͸˾ʵ󻷾Ҫ˾ԴȨķϴƣڹ˫£ǿԾ쵽ٿʼԾҪٺ;컮ޡֶͷDz͹ۺͲ̬ȣǣϾֻһҲ뿴ںܶ෨У绤ʦıȻǡ񡱵ݣҷdzΪ˱Ҫġ񡱡ټʹԹ߻صΪȻһҲڷͥϱ¶ӴͳĻĽǶȿڹٷ֮Ĺִһͳδͳ롣罫ʾ£֪ᵼ¹ٷȨ½[9]ڹ졢һ˾£ԺڷͥԵֱ֧緽мԺߣʵϱ˷ԺԺ֮ĶԿ֡ͬҲٸꡱǵ쵼µķ˫Ը⿴ġϽԾԾάطͱ緽ʵҲάijְڵĹٷȨ⣬Ϊϰߣٳһֵϵij嶯ֻҪǷȷʵѾˣȻΣܺ˺ᣬܺ˺͹ؾеϵƺͱͬĿΪָֹܺ򣬶ڡ족˼Ѭµй˵ְ֮ڡڡԩˣʹ޹߲׷ߡͷûУֻǺռҪʶȻᵼ·԰ѳסߡȻ/ԾԾصطһߣҪӱָʸ³ı绤ʦڷк׿Ϊ񻤼ݵһDzõġ
ɴ˿ɼ˾ĸһ壬ʦĵλеһӣÿһǣ浽ӵ棬ϣ±绤Ľ˰Ѳ󱳾Լ

ġ˭֮ɹͬ壿

һҵķҵҪչҵķɹͬ塣ɹͬĸ⼸ԭǰѧڿʼʶβdzϦ֮ҵҲһһְҵȺŬľͿԶɵġʷϿķζһͼḶ́οйһδͳȱʢеĹҡֻѧдƪģֻٶϼ׮ɰйεĽ̺˾ĸIJԣԲ˵ЧȻվֻDZˮнˣҵҪڵļģԷɻѧΪҵ߸Դ֮԰д·ʵͷѧоְҵȺΪɹͬ塱Ϊ˴һʣҪڷɵ½ҵһݳθְҵܹ֮¾ŽԽԸһԸ֮Կܣпάԣͬ˼˼άʹ˼໥[10]ˣ˵ķɹͬ١١ʦͷѧڵд·ɹҵ
ڹڷɹͬľУпά⣬ΤʽĽǶȣ[11]ɭ˹ְҵʵĽǶȣ[12]ԵĽǶ[13]ֱܶྫʶἰɹͬڲ⡣ڲɣ˵ʦЭᣬ߷ЭᣬҪָ١١ʦͷѧ֮ĹϵɼҡΪһձȽϷѧҴľŷΪǷҪߣɼҡǶԵ¹ȽϷѧҴġʽ͹ԹҪ֮һҪأ[14]ġɼҡߡҡ˵ġɹͬ塱ľŷڷڸϵҵķɹͬʱ־ڹͬĵְҵDzһġͬڴ½ϵڵ¹ѧڵĶԷγɺͽҪӰѧڵλþأڷʦĵλԶڽڻ߷٣Ϊΰġ񷨵䡷λһĶڴʦְҵľŷرע⣬ʷϵɼҼʦ[15]ӢϵЩͬӢڷɹͬλõǷ٣֪Ӣ÷һԪƣҪǴʵʾijͥʦѡΣʦҵʱij̺ͱֵ콫Ϊķ٣[16]ʦְҵռҪλȻǷΨһĵȷҪѡԴ֮һʵʦ¡°棬ͨʦûʲôIJͬ
ӸԿִι˵ʦҪôڷɹͬռλãҪô뷨١ٻѧ֮ѪԵϵܵĹϵȻҲһ⣬ǾΪѧϰǰʦĵλν֮ʷϣʦְҵήްģ˵ǵdz۹ġġҲ۵ǶһЩɵĺͱˣڵϻѧʶ϶ѣʱDZŵũżԭũū[17]ɳʱʦĵʱڱ̳ŴˣΪ滹һ⣺ʲô̶ϿΪ˽Ȩάߵְҵڣ[18]ǰʱʦŶصʦְҵ£ίʦ԰֮ʦжһʵּĬί˶Դ飬ʦԾܾΪ绤ǰķɼֵУʦ뷨ٺͼٹֿͬ͹ʵڼǿ巨Ʒ໥ϣʦĵλ۶ߣ硰ٽֹʦ໥ʺ򡱣ʦձʱܵơһ˲ͨʦŬܸı䱻˵ˡڱľУΪҲҪʦȵȣ[19]ЩķɹͬСӡֱ뱻ϸʦ
ʵ˵ǰ˵ԼֻҪµйʦڷɹͬеĴͻΪʲôʼձҵıȽϷѧһ뵽巨ϵ֮ȥҴʱΪ̸ǰͲҪ˵йˡΪйġξһӡĽʦǰйķɺͷѧĸż̺ͳԶӰ졣Ӱ첻ǽѧѧջѧѧӢͿ׻ȥģͬڷɹͬĹγСйʦ±绤ʦڷͥϵĵλʵҲͷӳɹͬеĵλǼʹǴȦӵıԵ͵ײ㣬Ҳ˶١ʦȲǷͥϵĹؼҲеıƷ뷨ٺͼ֮ҲûʲôѪԵϵڹ˾ɿƶȾʹʦˮƽڷٺͼ٣Ҳͬʱ֮ڳϵͬСǿʿдˡɹͬԡ[20]ʦƺкҪλãʵиʱǿԺԺ͹ijij˵֮ġԡ졢ȻȨҲܵĹͬijԱȻ⼸ѧҲԾΪ֮һ֧ݺӵԺͼԺ׷Ƹѧ߳רѯίԱᣬһЩУĸͷҲʼ׷ƸʵŵĹԱʡ᳣ֻз١ٺѧ߹ͬϯҲǾãǡǡ෴ΪһѧʵơªϰʼԻĺͷֻǾĻͻУʦӰ̫ˣʱɱ飬ʦ籾IJҲΣܶʦʦΪҵáǮ׬ˣôʲôʵȻΪеλλͬʱҲҪȡģ˶ŬķɹͬӦΣҲؽʹڹͬеλʽ΢ʹʦijԶҲʹʦпȻ˾ĸгΪĬĬԵġߡʦʶ֮ʿѾעһ㣬֪ĹһЩѾʼжºڱ廪ԺҸУоչѧ̳һЩУýѧȣһֻرᡢƽѧٵı֣ҲʾһѧЯֹĴҾӦиֳĹʶӦŬ취Եĺչ˾غȥʵ˵㣬ڵӵĿбƵȥ͵͵ءϵβһʼѰڷɹͬнһ໥غͱ˴˿ݵأ

塢Ϊʶ̬ڷɹ

йŴʦһԭΪ̳֪ɣ˽˵Ϊʦܷܽ˵ʦ[21]ʦһҲڵеƷšţһԻʦԻʦԻʦ[22]ȻҺ͵ʦǽ˵ʦȫͬϵʦȷǴӴָ֪ɡڽ˵ɡΪϵ˺ṩɰרҵԱ[23]йŴʱȻûγʦʦƶȣȴϡӦ֮Ҫ˽Ϊƽд״ıߵˣ˱ϰճΪʦ⽨ʱڣѧʿʹʦ𽥷չдʦС͡а֮ƣһ淴ӳ˲ʦϼܴʴ̺ǴһҲӳ˹öijЩˮƽߵʦĿ־ΪЩʦ״ʾҪЮõãʮջơ壬ʦҵܵٸơܵй⽨ʦһϤ֪ʶֻƾŶʶֵάƣʾ˴ҵʲβһλ£֮ûзɵĹ淶ԼԺܶʦթӺˣϰճΪϹԡԹ˾Ǯʦڼʹޱĵ޿κΡ[24]
ʷչ죬ܶնʦ̬ȿְֺܻޡҪа޷ӡҡõʱǰʦγһĻʦ˾ʱﻵ˵ȥ׬Ǯʱֺ޵ҧгݡIJʦԴܽᣬʦΪ˱绤ģʦ˾ԡְţʦ绤Ч˲ʦ񡪡ʴ˾ԱʦΡ֪ƭǮDzʦշʱΪʦı¾Ǿdz֮ΣƭȡǮƣǿʦΪˡ绤дʱ˵˵ùˡҪʦʱʦܣȿԩֿ[25]
±绤Уڶڷ˵Ŀ˳ӵ绤ȥϰУһһָطͱΪʵϵﷸ뷨ɵλﷸ죻ǶԷʹ޳ﷸ˵Ȩ֮ע[26]ȻⲻΪҪﷸȨı绤ΪŰͨڵֿʵѾΪһַʶֱ̬Ӱʦİ참ںܶ°УһЩʵʵԸʱǨŭʦΪ참Ҫֻʦѣ̬±绤ǮʮֲףߡվһߵʱʦҪס޴ѹǮͬܡΪһְҵºΪıֶεĹܱõһʶ̬Χ֮£ôְֹܽҵή

ѧʵĶλѵ

ڶʦϣһԱ֮йķѧDzɹġҪ棬һĿ꣬ģʽݡ
ȣķѧԺȣйķѧԺձȱĿꡣķѧԺʦΪΣ¹ķѧԺڶķѧңӢķѧԺһʿھʵѧ˵ҪΪ㷨ɼӦе˼ж֮ˡ[27]йķѧԺٶѧְҵѡһ׵ĵ򡣺ܶ౾оƽյѧϰﲢûһȷĿ꣬ڱҵʱӾҵƺͻ˻ʦ򷨹ٻѧоĵ·ʹɴ˶ʦȱְҵ׼֪ʶ׼ԼΪҪĶʦҵȰ
ΣĿȱģʽĻҡGravellsָǽѧԵķѧǽдҵԵķѵ[28]ǸҵķѧԺٵѡķѧԺʵѧʿΪѧְҵȫ180ԺУУJDѧˣǧҵʦŶLLMPHDоѧ١Ӣǡ෴ѧѧԺֻǴĻʦְҵѵҪʦѧԺɡ[29]֮£йķѧɣѧλзѧѧʿѧ˶ʿѧʿ˶ʿԼڶѧλȡѧһۺԴѧרŵԺУټ֮ѧԺѧԺһЩطʦѧԺȣ첢У໥ԵһѧλΪϰϣ˶ʿ͵ڶѧλʲô𣿷ѧ˶ʿͷ˶ʿԼѧѧʿھҵʲô𣿷ѧʿȥʵ񵽵Ǻ»ǻ£ʦоӦøѡʲôѧλѧƲ룿֮ʲôʲôѧλʲô˲ţڻDZȽģ
ģĿģʽģǽѧݵIJѧҪڷѧмӴְҵѵȣô䲻ӢʦѧԺһȫ߼ͥʦ򷨹ڿΣӦԵһЩʵʿڰ绤ڵķɼܣ֮ɴѧоĽڿܸΪƵĵĽȥְڿξ飬ôֲרѧͿãƱܾˡڸѧרſְҵܿβרҵʿĻ١׿ְҵܲ˵ʹӻˣڴѧѧԺĿγҲ벻⡣ʱڵѧ¥ʿԷɵĻĿһӣаѧѧѧѧѧʷѧѧѧѧԼѧѧϰ֮ǰûѧϰЩĿôһоֹϸķ⣬ִһƵķѧ[30]ŵӺⷬúܶѧУĿγߺաڵıѧԺΪϿγԼ٣ڣҲרŵĿγ̡ѧУϵ֮ԻѡΣմۺԴѧĹ⣬Զٽһ⡣ȫô෨ѧԺÿһԶҵڿεԴôı׼ûжһƵķѧҲһƺʦˣָηֵأ
Ҫᵽһ㣬϶ʦ۲ߣȻǰ˵ĸƶȺ͹ϵɣʦǷҲӦóʡְҵºְҵûأڹ⣬ʦĺûҵİȫӰܴŷμҴdzʦģǰɽߣڷѧһΪӡйʦڻûελ˾ͷſҪڵľĵˣǽĿܵ壬ʦ¶ǼҪġӹԣµȴֹۡ׿˵أοҲдѧһݣѧжڷӳ̶Ȳ¥ָѧһΣǽо֮⣬ע⵽÷ʱӦе̬ȡִʱʹ֪ʶܡƷԷ涼൱׼ڷԺΣνܰӦԵˣξȨνָܳ࣬͡ʾѵʦʱԹҡԼɲĵ¡ȻǶ˷ɣϣִʦ·ߵġִ񣬱ϾоɵĶҪ֮һ[31]¥֮ԿطĽΪʱ򣬡󲿷ֵʦõеµĹ̲˵ûУȻʦ֤飬ȱٷ֪ʶȥթƭ޵ʵҲ١ʦˣк̸õȨءɹΪһɽңûжΡûµʦϵȻһһʦ࣬ѧУʵӦΪйеķѧУרڷѧĹ䣬µѵҲ˵˷ѧһԳΪһеµʦ˵˷ѧٿʹѧ֪ǽʦʱʹäϹȥˣҪԼ[32]
εĻΪ͵öףⷨһεĽʵҪ֮ʮǰĽ̻͸룬ڽ첢ûйʱΪŷιҵ𲽽ʦͰߵľԽԽ󡣼ʮǰʱʦͽԾڽշøǿˡ

ߡۣһп

1978122աšԱѶбΪʦ١д˴ӳʦ֮йϵ[33]˶ӡйʦʱ٣ȵýûԸȥ绤ʦ״Ȼʦɥʧ˶ҪһֶΣôʹ̴ͷҵٷҲֻһٵķ١ΪҵտܽȫΪһִ˾ĸӹԼȨڵ񡱣[34]ҲζʦɥʧڵƷ񡣲һҪɱеʦǾζʧȥˡ绤ϵ۴ҲֻȥڽѰϵ۵İˡ
ΰĵķԿֽҪĸŬһÿرƸĸرƽȡ˼·᳹ͥΪĵϵĸ׶ΣŬҪ϶µڷɹͬĽУȡʦһϯ֮أʦҪ෢ԣ룬ڡйʦԼҿϻԾҪøֻͬԱԻŬʦӦ㹻ԾڶʦĹͿת䣬⵱ȻһᷢչеĻ⣬ijһȺɣʦִҵжҵºͲص԰ɣһѰı̬ǷѧģʽתҪעضʵ˲ŵǷɼְܺҵµ⽫ǸУʦĹͬ[35]
δõ֮ǰ±绤֮·Ȼͱͨ;ʦ˾ϵͳеһҪԪأ绤ʦȨ͵λ˾ĸеҪһҲΪˣϵͳϵͳеϢϢأܶƺǵ⣬ʵ˾󻷾ĸơǰ˾ĸĽ̻Ҽѣ䱳̵ΡúʹͳĻԭ򣬾һ֮ɹͬĽڷʶĽԼѧģʽתҲdzϦ֮ɵҵ֮ûν顱͡Բߡԭͼе֪ʶüƪµĹ滮Чָ͸ı±绤״ΨһжҪʱٳɣ֮УҲģǰ;УԿֵܳĶѺʹۣиءĬĬŬ

ע͡
[1] [Ӣ]ɯʿǣ룬աɯʿȫţѧ1978档
[2] μҷ ˹ŵڱϯϡ»1999档
[3] Daniel J. Kornstein KILL ALL THE LAWYERS PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS.
[4] ʦαȽоɳ2002棬97-102ҳ
[5] []ء˴ģȽϷۡ˺룬1992棬564ҳ
[6] μνߡաīɳ1998棬77ҳȻҲƢʦϤڡߡϷĩһУϷĩĹʦԷͥҪʦԵ飬˳ͥϯϵĴýա巨Ρɳ2002棬124ҳϾ´ҹһ̱ʦDzôǿӲ̬ȵģ/Ժڵˡ
[7] 㡢ɽеĽɫƽ⡱ձ1994512ա
[8] Կй١ա˾ƶȡйѧ1998棬95ҳ
[9] Կй١ա˾ƶȡйѧ1998棬98ҳ
[10] []пάϣ룬ӡ1997棬305ҳ
[11] MaxWeber Economy and Society An Outline of Interpretive Sociology Vol2 eds by Guenther Roth & Claus Wittich Univ of California Press 1978 pp. 765-780.
[12] T S Parsons A Sociology Look at the Legal Profession in Essays in Sociological Theory 1954 p. 384.
[13] []ִеķɡ¡ܺ룬йѧ1994棬46ҳ
[14] []ľŷ򣺡ȽϷ룬ɳ1999棬263-264ҳ
[15] []ľŷ򣺡ȽϷ룬ɳ1999棬266ҳ
[16] []ڶʦЭ᣺ʦƶȡ諵룬ɳ1989棬48ҳ
[17] []ľŷ򣺡ȽϷ룬ɳ1999棬345ҳ
[18] []ľŷ򣺡ȽϷ룬ɳ1999棬346ҳ
[19] μKucherov The Organs of Soviet Administration of Justice Their History and Operation 1970 p. 506 p. 553 p. 559 Pfeifer Justice in Moscow 1964 p. 246 p. 255.
[20] ѧѧԺġ
[21]̾Ʒ
[22]Ԫ䡤С
[23] ʯࣺʦƶ۹ۡȺڳ2000棬1ҳ
[24] ʯࣺʦƶ۹ۡȺڳ2000棬17ҳ
[25] תԺϲӯľ·˱绤йʦйʦ20027ڡ
[26] ʦαȽоɳ2002棬16ҳ
[27] Lawson Further Reflexions on Codification in Lawson selected Essays Comparison 1977 p. 96.
[28] Nigel P. Gravells Academic Legal Education and Vocational Legal training չΰӢࣺѧ״δйƳ2000档
[29] ӢʷʼջԾʦѧԺֿʦѧԺLincoln's InnʦѧԺGrey's InnڵʦѧԺInner TempleеʦѧԺMiddle TempledzΪ¢Եʦͷѵء
[30] ¥ɽйѧ1997棬17ҳ
[31] ¥ɽйѧ1997棬33ҳ
[32] ¥ɽйѧ1997棬33-34ҳ
[33] []ۣӢʦƶȡաʦƶȵʷ״ŹⲩȱУʡѧڲϡ
[34] []޲ءǣʦۡºε룬йѧ1997棬1ҳ
[35] 廪ѧѧԺϺĸУƸ뾩صʦΪѧԺĿڣѧڷʵе֪ʶ⣬Ϊһֶڷѧģʽ̽

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